James Dykstra (evens), and Read Gessner (evens)
1. Spoken by William Randolph Hearst, in response to the Spanish-American War. Known as the “king of yellow journalism”, he was renowned for using his media empire to further his own agenda. Therefore, he was also renowned for a lack of journalistic integrity. Ultimately, he’s painted a picture of what not to do if you’re a journalist.
2. Creel Committee on Public Info was more or less an American propaganda machine designed to sway public opinion of Americans in WWI, via films, newspaper, and “envoys”, in multiple countries. They were not always truthful, and were caught “embroidering” or embellishing the truth multiple times. During it’s tenure, it had over 20 bureaus in 9 different countries, usually tailoring its message specifically to that region.
4.Galvanic Skin Response: A method of measuring emotional reaction to stimuli by gauging sweat response. The sweat conducts electricity, and that electrical response varies depending on how much sweat there is. This may be seen in a study for effects of violent movies on children.
6. War of the Worlds was a live radio broadcast by Orson Welles on October 30th, 1938. Though it was merely an adaptation of H.G. Well’s novel, the effect it had on listeners was profound. Thousands were terrified, and some even took their lives over what they thought was an impending alien invasion. It was an indelible testament to the power of media, whether fictional or real.
8. A quote from Lowery and DeFleur, some of the earliest media effects researchers, in regards to their review of data from the Payne Fund Studies. This viewpoint sums up the sentiments of what ultimately led to the end of pre-code Hollywood, and brought rating systems to movies.
10. Klapper was the one of the original proponents of the idea that the media had “limited effects” on those who were receiving it, but rather reinforced what they already believed.
12. Liebert and Sprafkin were authors of the 1988 book “The Early Window”, in which they endorsed “prosocial” TV for youths. They felt that TV that reinforced positive behaviors and attitudes was very beneficial in a child’s developmental stages. They helped make Blue’s Clues possible, for better or for worse.
14. Micro level media effects are examinations of how/why individuals react to various media stimuli, via different mediums. For example, scientists may study the perspiration of a child in response to “American Psycho” with a GSR. Or they could check for pupil dilation in a moment of fear after realizing they will have to watch Blue’s Clues for the rest of their days.
15. Whereas micro studies individual reactions, macro level media effects studies focus on more sociocultural responses to media stimuli. For example, how Television influences an election, or how young children’s minds are warped by MTV and Disney.